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OLD GERMAN PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS and ILLNESSES
translated from German into English language

(courtesy of Oliver Weiss)

Abbauer - tenant on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdecker - skinner
Abendmahlgast - communicant
Abenteurer - jeweler; adventurer (also "Abentuerer)
Ablader - longshoreman
Abnahmemann - retired farmer on life estate
Abnehmer - photographer
Abschiedsmann - Man retired on life estate
Abstreifer - renderer; knacker; flayer; roof-uncoverer
Accisenschreiber - tax clerk
Achatschleifer - agate polisher
Achtbuerger - one of eight citizen representatives; citizen (bourgeoisie, not a guild member)
Achtelbauer - farmer on 1/8 of a full-sized farm
Achtelhufner - farmer on 1/8 of a full-sized farm
Achter - Juryman
Achtermann - farmer on farm behind ones's own
Achtmann - lay juryman; spokesman
Ackerbauer - farmer; tiller of he soil
Ackerbuerger - citizen farmer
Ackerer - farmer; tiller of the soil
Ackerknecht - farmhand
Ackersmann - farmer; tiller of the soil
Ackerwirt(h) - farmer; tiller of the soil
Aderlasser - bloodletter
Adjunkt - deputy; vice-; deputy mayor (of a village other than where the mayor himself resides in a
multi-village community)
Adjutant - (mil.) warrant officer
Adjuvant - auxiliary teacher
Adlerwirt(h) - proprietor of the Eagle Inn (at the sign of the eagle)
Adlige(r) - noble person
Administrator - administrator
Advokat - lawyer
Aebtissin - abbess
Aeltermann - master of a guild; head of chamber of commerce
Aeltester - (church) elder; member of the church council
Aescherer - ash-burner (in glass or soap factory)
Affengiesser - brass founder; bronze founder; pewterer
Affidat - vassal; tenant
Afkaat - lawyer (from Advokat)
Afstoeter - tanner
Afteiber - apothecary; pharmacist
Agsteinfischer - 'fisher' for amber
Agtschleifer - amber polisher; amber cutter
Aicher - surveyor; measurer; calibrator; supervisor of weights and measurers
Aichmeister - master surveyor
Akesbaas - barge shipper
Aksiseher(r) - (excise) tax overseer (on council)
Aktuar - accountant; statistician
Aldermann - alderman; councilman
Allmendherr, Allmendsherr - administrator of common lands
Allmendsvogt - free farmer elected to oversee common lands
Almosenpfleger - almoner; welfare supervisor (of church congregation)
Alpleiter, Alpmeister, Alpvogt - elected leader of an Alpine community
Altarist - church sexton
Altarmann - assistant to pastor; sexton
Altbauer - old established farmer, possibly on life estate
Altbuerger - old citizen with full rights
Altbuergermeister - former mayor
Altbuesser, Altbutzer - cobbler; shoe repairman
Altenteiler - retired man, on life estate
Altenteilerin - retired woman on life estate
Altflicker - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altfrau - female overseer over the maids
Altfuehrer - co-leader of a journeyman's association
Altgeselle - senior journeyman
Altgewander - repairer of old clothes
Althaendler - second-hand dealer
Altherr - oldest man of an organization; senior
Althufner - old farmer who has retired
Altjungfer - old maid; spinster
Altlapper, Altlepper - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altmagd - head female servant
Altreiss - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altschneider - repairer of old clothes
Altschuster - repairer of old shoes; cobbler
Altsitzer(in) - person on life estate
Altwalker - clothes repairer
Altwander, Altwendter - clothes repairer; dealer in used clothing
Ambachtkind - child of a guild member
Ambachtknecht - servant or apprentice of a tradesman
Ambachtsluede - craftsman
Ambacht(s)note - handworker; craftsman; guild member
Ambachtschriver - official clerk
Amer - admiral
Ammann - official; bailiff
Ammeister - master of a guild
Amtleute - officials
Amtmann - district judge; magistrate; bailiff
Amtsanwalt - prosecuting attorney
Amtsasse - appointed office holder in the provincial assembly who sends a
deputy
Amtsbruder - colleague, especially religious
Amtsbuettel - government servant, also police man
Amtsdiener - servant
Amtsfreier - free farmer
Amtsgerichtsrat - local court judge
Amtshauptmann - district administrative official
Amtsinhaber(in) - officeholder
Amtskeller - local tax administrator and collector of natural revenues; steward
Amtsknecht - court servant
Amtsmeier - major farmer with special rights
Amtsmeister - chief guildmaster; official
Amtsmueller - miller who pays rent to government office
Amtsrat(h) - senior local judge
Amtsrichter - local judge
Amtsschreiber - local court clerk
Amtsschoesser - tax collector of a jurisdiction
Amtsstoerer - craftsman operating outside a guild
Amtsverwalter - administrator
Amtsverweser - deputy; regent
Amtsvogt - district judge
Amtsvormund - official guardian
Anbauer - small farmer (on land cleared in the early 19th century); peasant; free villager with small
farm
Angstmann - executioner; torturer
Anlieger - person on adjoining property
Anrainer - person on adjoining property
Anreisser - salesman; recruiter; machinist
Ansager(in) - announcer
Anschaffer - mayor
Anspaenner - farmer of a full-sized farm; horse groom on an estate
Anspinner - textile piecer
Ansteker - shoemaker
Anstreicher - painter
Antecessor - predecessor in office
Antistes - Chief minister of a Reformed city church; church administrator
Anvald - attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc.)
Anwalt - attorney; lawyer (checks contracts, deeds, etc., appointed by owner of village)
Anwerber - recruiter for military or emigration
Anwiser - teacher; advisor
Apengeter, Apengiesser - pewterer, can maker
Apfelmann, Apfler - Apple picker, seller
Apologete - advocate
Apotheker - pharmacist
Appelmann - apple picker, seller
Arbeiter(in) - worker, male (female)
Arbeitsfrau - working woman
Arbeitsmann - working man
Architekt(in) - Architect male (female)
Archivangestellte - archive employee
Archivar(in) - archivist male(female)
Arcier - (mil.) member of a bodyguard
Armendeche - almoner
Armendiener - deacon charged with care of the poor
Armknecht - serf
Aroeder - new settler on lands belonging to and estate
Artmann, Artmeier - farmer
Arzt - physician; doctor
Aschenbrenner, Aescherer - maker of wood-ash for soap-making purposes
Asega - judge elected by the people, sworn to the Emperor
Asenmacher - axle-maker;( vehicle) frame-maker
Assemaker, Assenmacher, Assenmaker - axle-maker;( vehicle) frame-maker
Assessor - juryman; judge; counselor (not limited to legal advice); legal assistant
Asshauer - axle-maker
Atten - judge in farming community; juryman
Aubergist - innkeeper
Auditeur - advocate general
Auenhaeusler - free villager with small house and garden and some livestock
who usually works as a day laborer; cottager
Auermacher - clockmaker
Aufdinger - loader or assistant in marketplace; minor customs official
overseeing loading of ships
Aufermann, Auffermann - sexton
Aufpasser - lookout; spy
Aufschlaeger - loader; one who levied excise tax
Aufschwemmer - raftsman
Aufseher - guard; foreman
Aufspieler - musician
Aufwarter - waiter
Aulenbaecker - potter
Auler - potter
Ausbreiter - one who beats the bushes for game; coppersmith
Ausbuerger - citizen of a town living out in the countryside who had to pay taxes and provide
military service for his place of citizenship; citizen of a town who lived in another town but pays
taxes to keep his citizenship alive
Ausdinger(in) - person on a life estate
Ausfaut(h) - notary; court clerk
Ausgeberin - female household overseer
Ausgedinger(in) - person on a life estate
Ausklinger, Ausklingler - servant or messenger of council
Amtskultator - probationary attorney; one who sits in on a court without voting rights.
Ausmaerker - one living outside boundaries of a village but with right to
common pasture and commons
Ausmann - citizen living in another town but pays a sum to keep his
citizenship current; one who lives elsewhere
Ausmiener - auctioneer
Ausnehmer - person on a pension; one with life estate
Ausreuter - riding messenger for a city
Ausrufer - town crier
Ausschuss - committee; court assistants
Aussenbuerger - citizen living outside the city wall in the new part of the city
Austraegler(in) - person on pension or life estate
Auswanderer(in) - emigrant
Auswartmann - one who lives elsewhere but keeps his citizenship current
Ausweisser - whitewasher; painter
Auswohner - one who lives elsewhere but keeps his citizenship current
Auszahler - paymaster
Auszuegler(in) - person on pension or life estate
Axmann, Axtmann - carpenter; ax-smith
Ayer, Ayrer - egg merchant
 

Baader - Barber, also surgeon, dentist - a "quack"
Baar - Ship's carpenter; ship maintenance man
Baas - Innkeeper; ship's agent; overseer; boss
Baecker - baker alternative spelling: Beck
Baeckergesell(e) - apprentice baker
Baeckermeister - master baker
Backhausmann - cottager
Backmann - baker
Baedeker - cooper
Bademoem, Bademutter - midwife
Badener - same as Baader
Bader - same as Baader
Badewaerter(in) - lifeguard
Badgiesser - man who brings bathwater
Baerenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Bear Inn (at he sign of the bear)
Baerschneider - pig castrator
Baetjer - cooper
Bauerle, Bauerli - farmer; peasant (swiss)
Bahnbeamter - railroad official
Balbeeder - same as baader
Balestermacher - crossbow maker
Ballenbinder - packer
Ballettierer - ringmaster; master of ceremonies
Ballierer - polisher
Ballmacher - (leather) ball manufacturer
Ballonnenmacher - (leather) ball manufacturer
Bamutter - midwife
Bandhauer,-reisser, -schlaeger, -schneider - cooper; maker of barrel staves
Bankier - banker
Banquier - Banker
Bannere - bailiff for services to the lord
Bannerherr - administrator of the district of a city;
Bannertraeger - standard-bearer
Bannherr - lord of the manor
Banning - court messenger
Banittker - police or market clerk
Bannleute - free citizens under the jurisdiction of a noble
Bannrichter - criminal court judge
Banzenmacher - cooper; maker of beer-vats
Barbier - barber
Barbknecht - barber's helper
Barchenmeister - master of seals
Barchetweber - weaver with a loom at home
Bareler - cooper
Barettmacher - bonnetmaker
Barfknecht - barber's helper
Barfuesser - barefooted friar
Barsemeester - skipper of as boat without a mast
Bartscher(er) - barber
Bassist - (mil.) bass player
Bassuner - trombonist
Bastoever - bathhouse operator; barber
Baterleinmacher - rosary maker
Bauconducteur - contractor for rural construction
Bauer - farmer on a full-sized farm, owned or as a tenant; peasant
Bauermeister - leader of a farm community
Bauerngelde - free farm owner subject to tax on land
Bauernrichter - justice of peace in a farm community
Bauernschulze - appointed village mayor of a farm community
Bauernknecht - farmhand
Bauherr - overseer of city buildings
Bauknecht - farmhand; construction worker
Baumann - farmer of a full-sized farm; worker in building trades
Baumeister - overseer of city buildings; building contractor
Baumgartner, Baumgaertner - tree nurseryman
Baumhauer - woodcutter
Baumschliesser - toll collector on turnpike
Baumsiedemacher - cotton weaver
Baumwollenweber - cotton weaver
Baumwollenspinner - cotton spinner
Baumzuechter - tree nurseryman
Baur, Baeurle, Baeurli(n) - farmer; peasant
Bauunternehmer - building contractor
Bauverwalter - farm administrator
Bauwerker - construction worker
Beamte, Beamter, Beamtin - public official
Beauftragter - agent; delegate
Becherer - turner
Becherwirt(h) - tavern keeper
Bechler - pitch burner
Beck, Becker - baker
Bechdrechsel, Beckdrechsler - coppersmith
Beckenwerchte,-werte - foundry worker
Bederknecht - bathhouse worker
Bedermann - established citizen with inherited property
Bedesetzer - tax assessor
Bedienstete - servant of an important person
Bediente(r) - servant of an important person
Beflissener - student; student assistant
Begiener - pig castrator
Begine - lay female nurse
Behandinge - feudal tenure of a farm
Behelfer, Behelver - tutor
Beibauer - farmer on a new farm, officially recognized but with few privileges
Beiermann -sexton; bellringer
Beigeordneter - assistant; deputy mayor; assemblyman
Beikramer - peddler; merchant
Beinberger - maker of iron rims
Beindreher - turner of artistic materials such as ivory
Beingewender - maker of iron rims
Beinhauer - butcher
Beinknopfmacher - bone button-maker
Beisass(e) - rental inhabitant without citizenship
Beischer - whipmaker
Beisitzer - Junior lawyer; juryman; inhabitant without land (e.g. a son living with his parents) and
without citizenship rights or duties
Beitler - leather purse and glove maker
Beiwohner - non-citizen in village
Bekemacher, -maker - cooper
Bellenmacher - (cow) bell maker
Belter - beltmaker
Bender - cooper
Bendhack - barrel seller
Bendheuer, Bendschweicher - cooper
Bendsnider - wheelmaker
Bennemacher - wagoner
Bennenfuehrer - coachman
Benner - cooper
Bentmaker, Bentsnider - cooper; maker of barrel staves
Bereitknecht - forester's helper
Berenstecher - pig castrator
Berghauer - miner
Bergholde - vineyard owner
Bergknappe - miner
Bergler - small farmer
Bergmann - miner
Bergschreiber - mine clerk
Bergwerkbesitzer - mine owner
Berichterstatter - reporter; announcer
Berker - tanner
Bermenter(er) - parchment maker
Bernschneider - pig castrator
Berufsbeamte - tenured civil servant
Berzauter - pig castrator
Bescheper - shipper
Beschlager - blacksmith
Besemer, Besenbinder, - broom-maker; broom seller
Besener, Bessener - broom-maker; broom seller
Besenmacher - broom-maker
Besserer - one who caries out sentences of small-claims court
Bestaender, Bestaendner - farmer of a small farm
Bestanderlasser - landlord of a small farm
Bestandwirt(h) - tenant; lessee
Besteder - ship forwarding agent; shipbuilder
Bestetter - carrier; freight forwarder
Besucher(in) - inspector; visitor
Bettelvogt - beadle
Bettfedernhaendler - feather mattress trader
Bettschart - whipmaker
Bettzi(e)chenweber - linenweaver
Beuerlein - farmer
Beurtmann - member of shipowner's association
Beutelmacher, Beutler - leather purse and glove maker
Beutner - beekeeper
Bewohner - inhabitant; dweller in a house, street, region
Beysass(e) - rental inhabitant without citizenship
Beysitzer - junior lawyer; juryman
Bibliothekar(in) - librarian
Bienhalter, Biener, Bienenwaerter, Bienenmann - beekeeper
Bienzeidler - beekeeper
Bierbrauer, Biereigen - beer-brewer
Bierer - fruit merchant
Bierschenk(er) - tavernkeeper
Bierschroeter - beer hauler
Biersieder - beer-brewer
Bierspuender - beer inspector
Biesejager - almoner; policeman
Bildhauer - sculptor
Bildschnitzer - woodcarver
Bildweber - picture weaver
Billetsherr - councilman in charge of billeting soldiers
Billiter, Billetierer - (mil.) quartermaster
Binder - cooper
Birmenter - parchment maker
Birnmenger - pear trader
Bisser - dentist
Bitschenmacher - cooper; cupmaker
Biwohner - rental inhabitant without citizenship
Blankschmidt - smith (makes shiny blades, etc.)
Blattbinder -combmaker
Blattervater - hospital administrator
Blattmacher - papermaker
Blecharbeiter, Blechler, Blechschlaeger - tinworker; plumber
Bleicher - bleacher
Bleigiesser - leadpourer; pewterer
Bletzer, Bletzler - cobbler
Blicksleger - tinworker; plumber
Blidenme(e)ster - master of ordnance
Blocker - tailor
Blockkdreher,-dreier - turner
Bluethner, Bluetner - flower merchant
BM - abbr. for Buechsenmacher (gunsmith); Buergermeisteramt (Mayor's Office)
bm. v. r. d. st. - abbr. for Buergermeister und Rat der Stadt (mayor and
council of the city)
Bmstr. - abbr. for Baumeister (building contractor )
BO - abbr. for Bombardier (artillery man)
Boeck - baker
Boecker - cooper
Bockwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Ram Inn
Boddeker, Boeddecker, Boedeker - cooper
Bode - shipbuilder; government messenger
Bodel - beadle
Boedener - cottager
Boenhase - craftsman operating outside a guild
Boerger - citizen
Boertschiffer - shipper with regular route; member of shippers' organization
Boesselmaker - brushmaker
Boessler - cutter
Boeter - shipowner
Beottcher, Boetticher - cooper
Bogner - bowmaker
Bohrer - driller
Bohrerschmi(e)d(t) - drillsmith
Bokemueller - flax miller
Bokverwa(h)er - librarian
Bolsmann - farmer with a full-sized farm
Bolzendreher - boltmaker
Bombasineweber - cotton weaver
Bomhauer - maker of saddle trees
Bomsidenmaker - cotton weaver
Bootsmann - boatman; pilot
Bordenwerker(in) - border seamster, -stress
Bordmagd - female servant
Bornfeger - well cleaner
Borngraeber - well-digger
Bornmacher - well-digger
Bornmeister - well supervisor
Bornzieher - water carrier
Bortenmacher - lace maker; lace border maker
Bossierer - (porcelain former)
Botaniker(in) - botanist
Botenmeister - postmaster
Bothe, Bott - messenger
Botschafter - ambassador
Bottelier - ship's provisions officer
Bottmeister - chief messenger
Br. - abbr. for Braut (bride); Buerger (citizen); Bruder (brother)
Brachervog(e)t - almoner
Bracker - (officially appointed) cattle broker
Braemelmacher - haberdasher
Braeutigam - bridegroom; newlywed man esp. on wedding day
Brandmeister - fire chief
Brandweinbrenner - (brandy) distiller
Brandweinschenker - liquor retailer
Branntweinbrenner - (brandy) distiller
Branntweinschenker- liquor retailer
Braueigen, Brauer, Brauherr - brewer
Brauknecht - brewer's helper
Brautkind - child born to an engaged couple
Brechenmacher - flaxworker
Brecher - quarry worker
Breier - brewer
Breinmueller - millet miller
Breisler - Border maker
Brenker - one who lives on the edge of a village near a grassy hill called a
Brink
Brenneisen, Brenner - smith; stoker
Brennerknecht - distiller's apprentice; smith's apprentice
Brennmeister - master distiller
Brenntlerin - Alpine dairy maid
Brettschneider - sawyer
Bretzenmacher - clap maker
Breyer - brewer
Briechler - linen merchant
Briefbote - postman
Briefdrucker - printer of woodcuts
Brieftraeger(in) - letter carrier
Brinker, Brinklieger, Brinkmann, Brinksitzer, Brinkkoet(h)ner - cottager on
the edge of a village near a grassy hill called a Brink
Briser - border maker
Brodbeck - bread baker
Brodfuehrer - bread merchant with a cart
Brotlbauer - farmer obliged to provide room and board for a servant
Brotling - person directly dependent on lord for room and board
Brotmacher - worker in sugar industry
Bruechler - (door-to-door) peddler; ribbon seller
Bruchschneider - physician; surgeon
Bruchvogt - court servant
Brueckenzoller, Brueckner - bridge tollmaster
Bruck(n)er - bridge builder; mason
Bruger - brewer
Brunnenbauer - well-builder
Brunnenmeister - well supervisor; welldigger
Brunnenpalier - well supervisor
Brunnenreiniger - well cleaner
Brustschneider - corset maker
Brutkind - child born prior to marriage
Bub(e) - boy; apprentice
Bubenmeister - teacher
Bubnick - drummer
Buchbinder - bookbinder
Buchdrucker - printer
Buchdruckerfaktor - master printer
Buecheraltreiss - antiquarian bookseller
Buchfeller - parchment maker
Buchfuehrer - book merchant (with a pushcart)
Buchhaendler - bookseller
Buchhalter - bookkeeper
Buchmaler - book illustrator
Buechsenmacher - gunsmith
Buechsenmann, Buechsenschuetz - watchman with a rifle
Buechsenmeister - co-leader of journeyman's association; watchman (with a rifle)
Buechsenschmi(e)d - gunsmith
Buechsenspanner - gun loader
Buecksner - container and gun maker
Buchstaber - weaver of monograms and sayings
Bueddenbender - cooper
Buedeker - cooper
Budelbereeder - executor; (inheritance) administrator
Buedelmaker - leather purse and glove maker
Bued(e)ner - small farmer; stallkeeper; ;merchant (in market place booth or small shop)
Bueglerin - female ironer
Buerger(in)- -full citizen; (middle -class) burgher
Buergknecht - worker with pick and shovel)
Bueroangestellte(r) - office worker; white-collar worker
Buerochef(in) - office manager
Buerstenmacher - brushmaker
Buessenschaffer - guild treasurer
Buethener - beekeeper
Buettgesell(e) - paper maker; paper worker
Buettler, Buettner - cooper
Buhmann - farmer
Buitenmo(e)der - (female) administrator
Bumann - farmer
Bundtfutterer - furrier
Bungenschlager - drummer
Buntendrager - door-to-door cloth peddler
Buntfaerber - fabric dyer
Buntfoder(er), Buntmacher - furrier
Buerovorsteher(in) - office manager
Burpar(r)herr - village pastor
Burrichter - justice of the peace in a farming community
Buessenschuett(e) - gunner
Butendreger - (door-to-door) medicine salesman
Butenfahrer - sailor
Butenrecht(es)mann - district judge
Butenwever - weaver working outside the guild
Butenwohner - one who lives outside the village
Bueter - barterer
Butheler - nailsmith
Butigler - royal official
Butscher (Pennsylvania Dutch) - butcher
Buettel, Butteler - servant; butler; court messenger
Butteler - waiter
Buttermann - buttermaker
Buw(e)mann - farmer; citizen; worker in building trades

Cafetier(er) - cafe proprietor
Caffamacher - velvet weaver
Cammerarius - valet; groom
Canonier - cannon gunner
Car. - abbr. for Caribiner (rifleman)
Caribinier - rifleman
Casier - cheesemaker
Chasseur - (mil.)rifleman
Chausseearbeiter - road worker
Chelista - violinist; fiddler
Chemiker(in) - chemist
Chir. - abbr. for Chirurg (surgeon)
Chirurg - surgeon, for minor wounds, animal kicks, etc.
Chirurgus - surgeon
Chymiater - alchemist
Chyrurgus - surgeon
Clausurmacher - manufacturer of clasps
Conterfetter - portrait painter
Corbo - basketweaver
Cornet(t) - cavalry flagbearer
Cossat(e) - cottager with little land
Craemer, Craer, Cramer (also with "K÷) - small grocer; shopkeeper; merchant; trader from
backpack
Credenzer - waiter; innkeeper
Cronenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Crown Inn
Curand - guardian
Curschmied - blacksmith

Ebentuerer - jewel merchant
Echterling, Echtermann, Echtermeier - farmer who lives behind the village
Ehemakler - marriage broker
Ehemittler(in) - matchmaker
Ehestifter(in) - matchmaker
Ehrenbuerger(in), Ehrenb�rger(in) - honorary citizen
Ehrenmitglied - honorary member
Eichmeister - adjuster
Eierhaendler - egg merchant
Eiersammler - egg gatherer
Eierhaendler - egg merchant
Eigengaertner, Eigeng�rtner - cottager with a garden of his own
Eienhaeuser(in)- one who owns his/her own home
Eigenkaetner, -koetner, -koetter, - cottager with a garden of his own
Eigenmann - serf; vassal
Eigenthuemer(in), -th�mer(in) - property owner
Einberufener - conscript
Einlieger(in) - free agricultural laborer
Einnehmer - tax collector
Einspaenner - farmer with one horse; outsider; odd character; grass widower
Eisengiesser - iron founder
Eisenhaendler,- ironmonger
Eisenhauer - blacksmith; iron hewer
Eisenmenger - ironmonger
Eisenschmi(e)d - blacksmith
Erbpaechter - hereditary tenant
Erchmacher - (white) tanner
Erdarbeiter - earthworker (builder of canals and dikes)
Erdebaecker - potter
Eremit - hermit
Ersatzmann - paid replacment soldier
Eschenbrenner - maker of wood-ash for soapmaking, fertilizer, etc.
Essigbrauer, Essigfabrikant - vinegar maker
Essigmann, Essig-, Essigmanger, Essig-, Essigmenger - vinegar merchant
Euler, Eulner - potter
Exempt - (mil.) rank of bodyguard
Exkolon - retired farmer
Exner - small farmer with only oxen, no horses
Expectant - student at a religious institution

Fabrikant - manufacturer; factory owner, mill owner
Fabrikarbeiter - facotry, mill-worker
Fabrikbesitzer - factory, mill owner
Fabrikschlosser, -schol�er - factory maintenance man
Fachmann - specialist; expert
Fachreferent(in) - consusltant
Faehndrich, Faehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
Faehrmann - ferryman
Faehrpaechter - ferry renter
Faenger - hunter
Faerber - dyer
Faessler - cooper; vatmaker
Faehndrich - ensign; flagbearer
Fahnentraeger; Fahnentr�ger - ensign; flagbearer
Fahnenwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Flag Inn (at the sign of the flag)
Faehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
Fahrender - juggler; jester
Fahrenheinz - vagabond
Fahrensmann - seaman; seafarer
Fahrer(in) - driver
Fahrlehrer(in) - driving instructor
Faehrmann - ferryman
Faehrpaechter - ferry renter
Fait(h) - bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representatvie of the ruler
Faktor - administrator; manager
Falconi(er)meister - master falcon er
Falk(e), Falkner - falconer
Familiant - servant
Familiare - s;ave' serf (member of the household)
Familienforscher - family reseacher; genealogist
Familienkundler - family reseacher; genealogist
Faerber - dyer
Farcher - hog merchant
Fasanenmeister - master of pheasants
Fassbinder, Fasshauer, Faessler - cooper
Fassschlupfer - cooper
Fasszieher - carrier
Fastbaecker - baker of brown bread
Fa(u)th - bailiff; sheriff; constable; local representative of the ruler
Fechner - fur trader
Federbedienter - community official
Federschm�cker, -schmuecker - featherworker; plumassier
Federschneider - (quill) penmaker
Federviehhaendler, -h�ndler - poultry dealer
Fehnrich - ensign; flagbearer
Feilbeck - baker with own bakery
Feilenhauer, Feiler, Feilhauer, Feilner - file maker
Feilpeddler, Feiltraeger - peddler (with sack or rucksack)
Feilschlaechter - butcher with a butchershop
Feiltraeger - riflemaker
Felbaweber - silkweaver
Feldbauer - grain farmer
Feldgeschworener - settler of boundary disputes.
FeldhueterFeldschuetz - field watchman
Feldjaeger - courier
Feldkaplan - (mil.) field chaplain
Feldm. - abbr. for Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall - field marshall
Feldmeister - skinner; flayer
Feldprediger - (mil.) field chaplain
Feldreiter - policeman
Feldrichter - arbitrator of field disputes
Feldscher(er) - assistant medical officer
Feldw. - abbr. of Feldwebel
Feldwe(i)bel - (mil) noncommissioned officer; sergeant (major); sergeant (first class)
Felgenhauer - (wooden) wheel rim maker
Fellbereiter - currier
Feller, Fellhaendler - fur trader
Felllmann - animal hide skinner
Fellwerkbereiter - furrier
Fenner - ensign; flagbearer
Fensterputzer - window-washer
Ferber - dyer
Ferd(e)menger - horse trader
Ferge - ferryman
Festbaecker - baker of dark large loaves of bread
Fetthake, Fettmengen - lard merchant
Feuerer - stoker
Feuergeschworener - fire engine maintenance man
Feuermaeuerkehrer - chimney sweep
Feulner - filemaker
Feurer - stoker
Fiarant - merchant at a market
Fiaulmacher - wheelwright
Fickenwirt(h) - pursemaker
Fidler - fiddller; violinist
Fiedler - fiddler; violinist
Filterer - feltmaker
Findel - foundling; abandoned infant
Fischbeinhaendler - whalebone trader
Fischer(mann) - fisherman
Fischmenger - fishmonger
Fischweicher - seller of dried fish
Fiskal - tax inspector
Fitzer - artistic weaver
FJg. - abbr. for Feldjaeger
FK - abbr for Freikorporal (Free Corporal)
Flachshaendler - flax trader
Flachsmenger - flax trader
Flader - pastry baker
Flaeminger - tanner
Flaeschner - plumber
Flaeminger - tanner
Flaschenmacher - bottlemaker
Flaschner, Flaeschner - plumber
Fleischbeschauer - meat inspector
Fleisch-er, -hacker, -hauer, -mann - butcher, meatcutter
Flickschneider - repairer of clothes
Flickschuster - cobbler; shoe repairman
Flieger - aviator
Flintfiller - stonemason
Flitterer - gold leaf maker
Floesser - raftsman
Fluechtling - refugee
Flurschuetz(e) - field watch, forester
Flyerin - (female) wool-spinning machine operator
Focker - merchant
Foeniseca - mower, cutter
Foerster, Forster, Forstner - forester; forest ranger
Folterer, Folterknecht - torturer
Forense - absentee lord of and estate
Formdreher, Former Formschneider - formcutter; molder
Forscher(in) - researcher
Forstverwalter - forest superindendent
Fotograf(in) - photographer
Fotograph(in) - photographer
Fotzenstecher - animal castrator
Fourier - quartermaster
FP - abbr. for Feldprediger, field chaplain
Frachter, Fraechter, Frachtfahrer - freight hauler
Fraele - midwife
Fragner - merchant
Freibauer - free farmer with only small rent payments
Freibeuter - pirate, buccaneer
Freibote - court messenger
Freigraf - magistrate
Freiherr - ruler not subject to anyone but the Emperor; baron
Freiknecht - renderer; knacker
Freimann - tramp
Freimaurer - Freemason; member of the Masonic Lodge
Freisasse - farmer on Freisassenhof, a farm largely free
from tithes
Freischulze - village mayor and founder of a farming community
Freischuster - nonn-guild cobbler
Freiwaechter - soldier released from duty but kept in reserve; National Guardsman
Fremdarbeiter(in) - foreign worker
Fremde(r) - stranger; person from elsewhere
Friedhofswaerter - cemetery employee
Friedmacher - plasterer
Frischmeister - master iron founder
Friseur - male barber; hairdresser
Friseuse - female hairdresser
Froehner, Froender, Froener - one doing forced labor for the ruler
Froehner, Froener - one doing forced labor for the ruler
Frohne - court messenger
Fruchthaendler - fruit trader; grain trader
Frumwerker - day laborer
Fucker(er), Fugger(er) - wholesaler
Fuderer - cattle feeder
Fuehrer -guide; leader; hauler; local official
Fuehrerin - female guide, leader
Fuetterer - servant who feeds cattle
Fuhrmann - freight handler; carrier; carter
Fuhrunternehmer - freight hauler
Fuker - wholesaler
Fussknecht - infantryman; foot soldier
Fuetter - cattle feed merchant
Futterknecht - servant who feeds cattle

G & H UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Imber - herb merchant
Imitraeger - cooper
Imker - beekeeper
Impfartz - vaccinating physician
Infrau - female inhabitant
Ingrossist - tax collector
Ingwer - spice merchant
Inhaber(in) - proprietor
Inlaender(in) - citizen, non-foreigner
Inlieger, Inligger - tenant; lodger
Inmann - male inhabitant
Innungsmeister - master of a local guild
Innungsmitglied - member of a local guild
Innungsobermeister - chief master of a local guild
In(n)wohner - inhabitant
Insasse - male hospital patient; inhabitant
Insassin - female hospital patient; inhabitant
Insgesessene(r) - non-citizen tenant
Inste - renter; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with no land
Instmann - farm worker; hired help; pensioner; craftsman with no land
Interimswirt(h) - farmer who marries into a farm (by marrying the widow or heiress)
Ipser - house painter; decorator
Ircher - goat leather tanner
 

Jaeger - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
JAG - abbr. for Feldj�ger-Korps (Courier Corps)
Jagdgehilfe - hunting helper
Jaeger - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Jahrmeister - guildmaster
Jammer - epilepsy
Jaufer, Jaufmann - itinerant juggler
Jgfr., Jngfr. - abbr. for Jungfrau (Miss; virgin)
Jobstkrankheit - leprosy
Johanniter - Maltese Knights
jong Gezel - bachelor; young journeyman
Jugendrichter - juvenile court judge
Jungmann - young male servant
Junker - young nobleman (Prussian army officer); country squire
Jurist - lawyer; law student
Justizbeamte - judicial official

Kabinettmeister - administrator
Kabuzenbauer - cabbage farmer
Kacheler, Kachler, Kaechler - tilemaker; tile-layer; potter
Kaehler - collier; coal merchant
Kaelker - limeburner
Kaemifaeger - chimneysweep
Kaemmerer, Kaemmerin - steward; treasurer; buttler
Kaemmerling - domestic servant; valet
Kaendler - canmaker; gutter repairer
Kaercher - wagonmaker
Kaerrner - freight hauler (by cart)
Kaesebaecker - cheesemaker
Kaeshaendler,Kaeser - cheese trader
Kaesmacher - cheesemaker
Kaestenbrenner - chestnut roaster
Kaestner - steward; treasurer; carpenter
Kaet(h)ner - cottager with samll house, garden, a little land for cattle or anaimals
Kaeufel, Kaeufeler - small merchant; peddler
Kaeufer - merchant
Kaeufler - small merchant; peddler
Kaffhaarmacher - velvet weaver
Kafiller - renderer; knacker
Kagelbruder - fishmonger
Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann - tilemaker; tile-layer; potter
Kaehler - collier; coal merchant
Kahnsmann - bargeman
Kallchborner - chalk burner
Kalfakter, Kalfaktor - boilerman; caretaker
Kaltschlaechter - renderer; knacker
Kaltschmi(e)d - coppersmith
Kamesierer - peddler
Kaminfeger - chimneysweep
Kammerbeamte(r) - treasury clerk
Kammerbedienter - valet
Kammerdame - maid
Kammerdiener - valet
Kaemmerer - treasurer; butler
Kammerherr - chamberlain
Kaemmerin - treasurer; butler (female)
Kammerjungfer - chambermaid
Kammerjunker - chamberlain
Kammerlakai - servant of the court; lackey
Kaemmerling - domestic servant; valet
Kammermaedchen, -maedchen - chambermaid
Kammermeister - internal revenue administrator
Kammerpaechter, -paechter - crown-land tenant
Kammerportier - domestic servant
Kammersteward - ship's cabin steward
Kammerzofe - chambermaid
Kampelmacher - combmaker
Kampheuerling - tenant of a farm belonging to nobility
Kanalarbeiter - canal worker
Kandelgiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
Kandler, Kaendler - (tin or pewter) can founder; gutter repairer
Kanefassmacher - canvas weaver
Kannengiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
Kantengiesser - (tin or pewter) can founder
Kanzelredner - preacher
Kanzleibeamte(r), -bote - government official
Kanzleidiener - government servant
Kanzleischreiber - chancery clerk
Kanzleivorsteher - head chancery clerk
Kanzlist - chancery clerk
Kapauner - animal castrator
Kapellmeister - bandleader
Kaplan - chaplain; clergyman in a chapel
Kappenmacher - capmaker
Kappusmann - cabbage merchant
Karbender - wheelwright
Karchelzieher - freight hauler
Karcher - freight hauler in a cart
Kaercher - wagonmaker
Karpe - carpenter
Karrer - carter
Kaerrner - freight hauler (in a cart)
Kartenmaler - painter for (religious) woodcuts
Karter - wool carder
Kartzin - money changer
Kaesebaecker - cheesemaker
Kaesehaendler - cheese merchant
Kaeser, Kaesmacher - cheesemaker
Kassengehilfe, -gehuelfe - sales clerk
Kassi(e)rer(in) - cashier
Kastellein - innkeeper
Kaestenbrenner - chestnut roaster
Kastenkeller - tax official
Kastenmeister - administrator of a church office
Kaestner - steward; treasurer; carpenter
Kat(h)enmann - cottager with small house, garden, a little land for animals
Kaet(h)ner - cottager with small house, garden, a little land for animals
Kattunweber - cotton weaver
Kaeufel - small merchant
Kauffrau - business woman; female shopkeeper
Kaeufler - small merchant; peddler
Kaufmann - merchant
Kauwarz - moneylender
Kaviller - renderer; knacker
Kedde - peasant master
Keifer, Keiffer - cooper
Keiper - captain of a fishing boat
Keller - wine steward
Kellereiverwalter - administrator of the winecellar
Kellerherr - wine steward
Kellermeister - keeper of the winecellar
Kellerwart - cooper
Kellner - waiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kellnerin - waitress
Keltermacher - winepress maker
Kemmetfeger, Kenderkehrer - chimneysweep
Kendler - canmaker
Kerkermeister - jailer
Kerzenmeister - chairman of a guild
Kerzenzieher - chandler
Kesselflicker - itinerant kettle repairman; soothsayer and medicine man
Kesselschmi(e)d - boilermaker
Kesskaiffer - cheese merchant
Kessler, - kettlemaker; coppersmith
Kestner - steward; treasurer
Ketelbuter - pot repairer
Kettenmacher, Kettenschmi(e)d - chainmaker
Kettler - kettlemaker
Kettner - chainmaker
Keuschler - small farmer
Kiefer, Kieffer - cooper
Kindelmutter - midwife
Kinderarzt(in) - pediatrician
Kindererzieherin - female teacher of young children
Kinderfraeulein, - governess
Kinderfrau - nanny
Kindermaedchen, -maedchen - nanny
Kinderschwester - children's nurse
Kindervater male - obstetrician
Kinderzieher(in) - tutor
Kirchenbeter - church tax collector
Kirchenbuchfuehrer(in) - one in charge of church books ; church book keeper
Kirchencensor - church censor (guardian of morals)
Kichendiener - church sexton
Kichenfuerst, - prelate
Kirchengeschworener - chuch juryman
Kirchenjuraten - church juryman
Kirchenlehrer(in) - church teacher
Kirchenmeyer - administrator of church farm property
Kirchenpfleger - church caretaker
Kirchenprovisor - administrator of church farm property
Kirchenrat(h) - church council
Kirchenschoeffe - church lay juryman
Kirchenvater - church administrator
Kirchenvogt - lay administrator of church property
Kirchenvorsteher - chairman of the church council; deacon
Kircher - sexton; pastor
Kirchner - sexton
Kirchschaffner - administrator of church farm property
Kirchspielshauptmann - president of church congregation
Kirchspielsrichter - chairman of church congregation
Kirchvater - church father; presbyter; church elder
Kistenmacher - maker of boxes; woodworker
Klagbote - lawyer
Klagfuehrer - lawyer
Klaiber - stucco worker
Klammer, Klampferer - plumber
Klausner - hermit; recluse
Kleber - stucco worker
Klecker - painter
Kleenschmi(e)d - blacksmith
Kleiber - stucco worker
Kleidermacher - maker of clothes
Kleinbauer - farmer with a small farm
Kleinbinder, Kleinboettcher - cooper for small barrels
Kleinhaendler - retailer
Kleinknecht - young helper; apprentice
Kleinkoetner, -koetter - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for
animals
Kleinschmi(e)d(t) - locksmith
Kleinschnitzler - detail carver
Klempner - plumber; tinsmith
Kleriker - cleric; clergyman
Klerk - writer; clerk
Klingelschmid(t) - bellmaker
Klingenkaufmann - cutlery merchant
Klingenschmid(t) - bellmaker
Klinger - blacksmith
Klippkraemer - cork merchant
Kloeckner - church sexton; bellringer
Kloterer - juggler
Klozenmacher, Klozenkorkenmacher - cork maker
Kluengelkerl, - scrap dealer
Knaebin - woman's helper (female)
Knaeufler - button maker
Knakenhauer - butcher
Knapsack - peddler
Knaufelmacher, Knaeufler - button maker
Knecht - servant; farmhand; apprentice; errand boy; laborer
Kneipwirt(h) - proprietor of a tavern; alehouse keeper
Knepsche - weaver's helper (female)
Kneveler - beer hauler
Knieriem(en) - shoemaker
Knochenhauer - butcher
Knoespler - wooden-shoe maker
Knopfmacher(in) - button maker
Knoespler - wooden-shoe maker
Kobelhirt - horse groom
Koebler - cooper; farmer of a small farm
Koch(in) - cook; chef
Koebler - cooper; farmer of a small farm
Koechin - female cook
Koehler - charcoal burner
Koelschenweber - clothweaver
Koepfler - pig castrator
Koerb(l)er - basket maker; seller of baskets
Koerner - granary protector; dealer in grains
Koer(t)zener - furrier
Koester, Koesterius - church sexton
Koestner - steward
Koet(h)ner - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Koggenbuwer - shipbuilder
Kohlenbrenner, Kohler, Koehler - charcoal burner
Kohlhoeker - greengrocer
Koller - leather harnessmaker
Kolon(e) - settler; farmer of a crop farm with hereditary tithe
Kolonist - settler; colonist
Kolporteur - door-to-door salesman
Koelschenweber - clothweaver
Komiss, Kommerziant, Kommis(s) - merchant's clerk on commission
Kommissarius - clerk on commission
Kompassmacher - compass maker
Konditor - pastry-maker
Konduktor - estate tenant
Konstabler - constable; (mil.) gunner
Konstrukteur - engineer
Kontorbediente(r),Kontorist(in) - clerk; office worker
Koolke - colic
Koopmann - merchant
Kopenhauer - cooper
Kopersmid - coppersmith
Koepfler - pig castrator
Kopfwuestigkeit - influenza
Koppelknecht - horse groom
Kopperschmid - coppersmith
Koerber, Korbflechter, Koebler, Korbmacher - basket weaver
Korduan - shoemaker, with goat's leather
Koerner - granary protector; dealer in grains
Kornfuehrer - grain dealer with a cart
Kornhaendler - grain trader
Kornhausverwalter - granary administrator
Kornmann - granary protector; dealer in grains
Kornmesser - grain measurer
Kornmueller - grain miller
Korssenmeister - furrier
Koer(t)zener - furrier
Kossat(e), Kossatin - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Kostgaenger - boarder
Kote - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Kot(h)mann - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Koet(h)ner - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Kotsass, Kotasse, Kotsasse - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for
animals
Kotter, Koetter - cottager with a small house, garden and a little land for animals
Kotzenmacher - coatmaker
Kotzenweber - loden cloth weaver
Kraemer - merchant; peddler
Kraemper - peddler
Kraeutler- bontanist; pharmacist
Krameramt - shopkeeper's guild
Krammoder - mid-wife
Krankenpfleger(in) - caregiver for the sick
Krankenschwester - female nurse
Krankenwaerter(in) - orderly; practical nurse
Kratzenmacher - basket weaver
Krautkraemer, -kramer - druggist
Krebisser - shell fisherman
Krebsgeschwuer - cancer sore
Kreisrat - county commissioner
Kreisser - forest supervisor
Kremer - grocer; small merchant; shopkeeper
Krenke - epilepsy
Kretschmer, Kretschner - innkeeper
Kreuzschmi(e)d - swordsmith; silversmith
Kreuzwirt(h) - inkeeper of the Cross Inn
Kriebelkrankheit - cramp
Kriegsknecht - mercenary
Krippenmacher - maker of cribs
Kripps, Krips - influenza
Kroeger, Krogmann - innkeeper
Kroemke - peddler
Kronanwalt - attorney general
Kronenwirt(h) - innkeeper of the Crown Inn
Krudener, Kruedener - pharmacist
Krueger - innkeeper
Krueppel - cripple; lame person
Krummholzhaendler - scrub timber dealer
Krueselkerl - tin founder
Kuebler - cooper
Kuechlebaecker, Kuchenbaecker, -baeker - pastry baker
Kuechenmeister - chef; master of the kitchen
Kuechenschreiber - master chef
Kuderer - flax merchant
Kuebler - cooper
Ku(e)her - cowherd; dairyman
Ku(e)hhirt(in) - cowherd
Kuehlmann - field watchman
Kuemmer - cooper
Kuemmichkehrer - chimneysweep
Kuemper - cooper
Kuenstler(in) - artist
Kueper - cooper
Kueperholzmacher - barrelstave maker
Kueppenbender, Kueppers - cooper
Kueppler(in) - matchmaker
Kuerbenzeiner - baskt weaver
Kuerschner - furrier
Kuester(in) - sexton; church custodian; pastor's assistant
Kueter - butcher
Kuefer, Kuffer, Kuefler - cooper
Kuhbauer - farmer with a cow
Kueher, Kuhhirt(e) - male cowherd
Kuhhirtin, Kuehhirtin - female cowherd
Kuhlengraeber - gravedigger
Kuehlmann - field watchman
Kulitze- -furrier
Kummeder - saddler
Kuemmer - cooper
Kumper - tanner
Kuemper - cooper
Kunstdrechsler - (ivory) turner
Kuenstler(in) - artist
Kunstmaler(in) - artist
Kunstmeister - master organ builder
Kuper, Kueper - cooper
Kueperholzmacher - barrel stave maker
Kupferdrucker - copperplate printer
Kupferschmi(e)d - coppersmith
Kupferstecher - copper engraver; etcher
Kueppenbender, Kueppers - cooper
Kueppler(in) - matchmaker
Kuerbenzeiner - basket weaver
Kurdewaener - shoemaker (with cordovan leather)
Kurkeler - corkmaker
Kurschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
Kuerschner, Kursener - furrier
Kuester(in) - sexton
Kueter - butcher
Kutschenbauer - wagonbuilder
Kutscher - coachman
Kuttelwamper - tripe seller
Kutter - cutter
Kuttler - offal seller

L & M DO NOT EXIST

Muehl Arzt - Mill Repairman (this name only existed up to about 1750 and perhaps only in the area around Hessen.  Muehlarzt (in other documents also called *Windmuehl-Richter*)
 

Nachlasspfleger(in) - trustee of estate
Nachlassverwalter(in) - executor; administrator
Nachtwaechter - night watchman (sometimes held in ill repute)
Nadelmacher, Nadelmann - needlemaker
Nadler - needlemaker; haberdasher
Naehdirne - sewing girl
Naeher - seamster
Naeherin - seamstress
Naetler - needlemaker
Nagel, Nagelschmi(e)d, Nagler - nailmaker
Naeher - seamster
Naeherin - seamstress
Naetler - needlemaker
Neiler, Neilschmieder - needlemaker
Nestler - shoelace maker
Netzmacher - (fish) net maker
Neubuaer - farmer on land newly cleared (18th century)
Neubuerger(in), Neub�rger(in) - new citizen
Neuschwander - person living on a newly burnt-out (cleared) place
Neuwohner - new inhabitant
Noldener - needlemaker
Nonne(n)macher - animal castrator
Nosterer - rosary maker
Notar - (government) notary
Noterbe - (mandatory) heir
Nothzeuge - emergency witness
Nottaufe - emergency baptism (by a layman)
Nudelmann - needlemaker
Nuesch(e)ler - belt maker
Nuess(e)ler, - maker of nut oil
Nufeler - tweed maker
Nuldener - needle maker
 

Obdachlose(r) - homeless person
Obentuerer, Obent�rer - diamond merchant
Oberamtmann - (government) administrator
Oberfeldwebel - warrant officer
Oberfoerster, Oberf÷rster - chief forester
Oberkoch - male master chef
Oberkoechin,- female master chef
Oberkueper - cooper
Obermann - superintendent
Obermeister - master of a guild
Obermueller - miller (at the upper mill)
Oberpfarrer - chief pastor
Oberrabbiner - chief rabbi
Obesser - fruit merchant
Obervogt - chief local government official; bailiff
Oberst - (mil.) colonel
Obmann - chairman
Ob(t)ser - fruit picker
Obstler - fruitpicker; fruit seller
Obstverkaeufer(in) - fruit merchant
Ochsenknecht - oxen tender
Oechsner - small farmer with only oxen, no horses
Oeconom - small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper, economist
Oehler, Oehlmann - oil maker; oil seller
Oekonom - small farmer; farm manager; steward; innkeeper, economist
Oelmann - oil miller; oil merchant
Ofener - stovefitter
Ofenfabrikant - stove maker
Ofengrgraeber - stoker
Ofensetzer - stovefitter
Ofenwaerter - furnace operator
Offermann - church sexton
Ohlenmacher - potter
Oelmann - oilmaker; oil seller
Olboeter - shoe repairer; cobbler
Oldkitter - shoe cobbler
Oleymann - oil merchant
Oelmann - oil miller; oil merchant
OM - abbr. for Obermeister (master of a guild)
Omentraeger - freight hauler
Opperknecht - apprentice bricklayer
Oppermann - church sexton
Ordner - file organizer
Orgelbauer, Org(e)ler - organbuilder
Orleymacher - watchmaker
Ortsbewohner - local resident(s)
Ortsbuerger - citizen of a place
Ortschmi(e)d - toolsmith
Ortsgeistliche(r) - local pastor; local clergy
OZD - abbr. for Oberzolldirektor ("chief customs director:)
 

Pau(c)ken - swelling; tumor (growth)
Pest - plague; pestilence
Pestbeule - pestilence sore
Pestblattern - pestilence sores
Petetchen - typhoid fever
Pfies - skin growth*Pfnuesel, Pfnusel, Pfnuesel - head cold
Pfneche - asthma*Pipf - influenza
Phronesia - insanity
Popf, nuernbergischer - "Nuremberg flu"
Pipf, spanische - "Spanish flu"
Plage - plague; syphilis
Pocken, Pockseuche - smallpox
Podagra - gout
Porpeln - measles; pox
Puls - pulse; heartbeat
Pusseln - pustules; pox

Quartanfieber - malaria

Rachimburge - lay assessor
Raecke - stiffness of the limbs
Racker - renderer; skinner
Rademacher - wheelwright
Radhauer - wheelwright
Raebbe - rabies
Raecke, Raehe - stiffness of the limbs
Raetin - female council member; official; councilman's wife
Rastelbinder - pen repairer
Rateler - night watchman
Rat(h)geber(in) - advisor
Rat(h)s, des - member of the council
Rat(h)sdiener - council employee; beadle
Rat(h)sherr - town councilman
Rat(h)smitglied - member of the council
Rat(h)sschreibe - town clerk
Rat(h)sverwandter - member of the town council
Raetin - female council member; official; councilman's wife
Rauhmaurer - stonemason
Raumpflegerin - cleaning lady
Rauschfaerber - black dyer
Rebmann - vine dresser
Rebmeister - master vine dresser
Rechtsanwalt - male lawyer
Rechtsanwaeltin - female lawyer
Rechtsbeflissene(r) - law student
Rechtsbeistand - legal adviser
Rechtsgelehrte(r) - lawyer; legal scholar
Rechtspfleger - judicial administrator
Regi(e)rungsbaumeister - superintendent of public works
Regi(e)rungsbeamte(r) - government official
Regi(e)rungsdirektor - chief administrator
Regi(e)rungsrat(h) - government council(lor)
Regi(e)rungsferendar - probationary government worker; government intern
Regimentsartz - regimental doctor
Regisseur - male director
Reiber - masseur
Reichkraemer - herb and silk merchant
Reichkanzler - Imperial chancellor
Reichritter - Imperial knight
Reichsverwer - Imperial regent
Reidemeister - vice-mayor on council; council president
Reifer - ropemaker; rope merchant
Reifschlaege - ropemaker
Reinmachefrau - cleaning lady
Reiseknecht - ruler's servant during travels
Reisemarschall - royal courier; travel advance man
Reiser - pilgrim
Reisiger - rider
Reisner - rope maker
Reitender - mounted messenger
Reiter - rider; cavalryman
Reitschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
Rektor(in) - school headmaster/mistress; principal; minister/minister's wife
Relikt - relict; survivor
Rendant - paymaster; treasurer
Rentamtmann - treasurer
Renteibote - treasurer's office messenger
Rentner(in) - retiree
Reper - ropemaker
Repschlaeger- ropemaker
Retspede - lay assessor
Retuschier - porcelain retoucher
Reuss- shoemaker
Reuter - rider; cavalry; clearer of land
Reutschmi(e)d - blacksmith; farrier
Reuzze - shoe cobbler
Revisor - inspector
Richtherr - lay assessor
Richter(in) - judge
Riedemeister - vice-mayor on council; council president\
Riemenmacher, Riemenschneider, Riemer, Riemschlaeger Riemschneider -
leather strapmaker
Rinderknecht - cattle tender
Rindsschuster - tanner
Rinker - kettlesmith
Rit(t)er - knight
Rittmeister - cavalry captain
Roback - servant
Rockener - baker of dark bread
Roeder, - clearer of land
Roepe - ropemaker; town crier
Roeseler - whitewasher
Roessler - horseman; tanner
Roet - measles; bloody diarrhea
Roeteln - measles
Rojgast - seaman
Rolladenbauer - window blind installer
Roller - coachman; freight hauler
Roeper - ropemaker; town crier
Rorenschieber - tin peddler
Rossarzt - horse doctor; veterinarian
Rosser - horse groom; freight hauler
Rosshaendler - horse dealer
Rosshirt - horse herdsman
Rosskamm - horse dealer
Rotgerber - red tanner
Royer - cooper
Ruetze - shoe cobbler
Russfaerber, Ru�f�rber - dyer
 
 

Saeckelmeister - treasurer; administrator
Sackhuhn - sailmaker
Saeckler - sack maker; treasurer
Sackmacher - sack maker
Sadelhoefer - farmer and lay assessor
Saeger - sawyer
Saemischmacher - white tanner
Saenger - singer(s)
Saeuhirt(e) - swineherd
Sagenschneider - plank cutter
Sageter - sawmiller
Sailer - ropemaker
Salinearbeiter, Salinenknecht - helper at a salt-well
Salmann - executor; administrator
Salpetersieder - nitrate maker
Saltzitzienmacher - sausage maker
Salunenmacher - blanket weaver
Salwirt(h) - weapon smith
Salwuerker, -wurch, - tinsmith
Salzaufleger - tax official
Salzfueher - salt merchant with a cart
Salzfueller - customs official
Salzhaendler - salt merchant
Salzinspektor - salt inspector
Salzkaerrner - salt merchant with a cart
Salzmann - salt merchant
Salzsieder - saltmaker
Salzsteuereinnehmer - salt tax collector
Salzstoessel- salt merchant
Salzvogt - saltworks overseer
Saemischmacher - white tanner
Sandbauer - farmer with sandy ground
Sandler - sandal maker
Sargedromacher, Sargenweber - woolen cloth weaver
Sarghauer - stonemason
Sargtraeger - pallbearer
Sarkhauer - stonemason
Sarrwerker, -wuerker, -wurker - harness-maker
Sauhirt(h) - male swineherd
Sauhirt(h)in - female swineherd
Saeumer - freight hauler
Sauter - shoemaker
Schacherer - peddler
Schachtmeister - mine master
Schaefer - shepherd
Schaef(f)ler - cooper
Schaeuf(e)ler - shovelmaker; peddler
Schaffer - worker; laborer; administrator
Schaffmann - worker
Schaffner(in) - conductor
Schafhirt(e) - shepherd
Schafmeister - sheep farm overseer
Schaidmesser - maker of cutlery
Schal(c)k, Schall - servant
Schalenschroder - maker of knife handles
Schallaunenmacher - blanket weaver
Schankmacher - cupboard maker
Schankwirt(h) - innkeeper
Schanzenmeister - jailer
Schaper - shepherd
Scharfrichter - executioner
Scharlach, Scharlachfieber - scarlet fever
Scharnemann - merchant in a market
Scharrmacher - wagon builder
Scharwaechter- night watchman
Scharwerker - day laborer on a farm
Schatter, Schattmann - tax assessor
Schatzmann - moneychanger; treasurer
Schatzmeister - treasurer
Schauer - cloth inspector
Schaeuerchen- shooting pains in the teeth; epilepsy
Schaufert - shoemaker
Schaeuf(e)ler - shovel maker; peddler
Schaukastentraeger - traveling salesman who carries a showcase around
Schauspieler(in) - actor/actress
Schauwecker - shoemaker
Scheckensticker - embroiderer
Scheffler - bowlmaker; cooper
Scheibenreisser - glazier
Scheibler - salt carrier
Scheidler - knife-blade maker
Schellenschmi(e)d - cowbell maker
Schelter - jester; entertainer
Schen(c)k - innkeeper who taps beer or wine
Schen(c)ker - innkeeper
Schen(c)kjunfer - wet nurse
Schen(c)kwirt(h) - innkeeper who taps beer or wine
Scheper - shepherd
Scherenschleifer - scissors sharpener
Scherenmacher - scissors maker
Scherer - barber; beardcutter; cloth cutter
Scherge - sheriff's deputy
Schichtmeister - mine paymaster
Schiedsrichter - local court judge; justice of the peace
Schiedsverwandter - member of local court
Schieferdecker - roofer of slate roofs; slater
Schiesser - hunter
Schiffbauer - shipbuilder
Schiffer - shipper; seaman
Schiffmann - sailor
Schiffseigner - shipowner
Schiffsmakler - shipbroker; shipping agent
Schilderer - sign painter
Schilderhersteller - sign maker
Schindeldecker - roofer of shingle roofs
Schindelmacher - shingle maker
Schinder - renderer; skinner
Schindler - roofer; skinner
Schinner - renderer; skinner
Schirmmacher - umbrella maker
Schirrmacher - wagon maker
Schirrmeister - master wagon maker
Schlachter - butcher
Schlaechter - butcher
Schlachtmann - butcher
Schlachtwanter - clothing wholesaler
Schlafbaas - innkeeper
Schlechter - butcher
Schlegel - turnkey of a prison
Schleifer - polisher
Schleusserin - maid
Schlieper - knifemaker; cutler
Schliesser - church administrator
Schlieter - merchant
Schlossaufseher - castle keeper; castellan
Schlossbesitzer(in) - castle owner
Schlosser - locksmith; mechanic; tinkerer
Schlossherr(in) - castle owner
Schlotfeger - chimneysweep
Schlotthauer - locksmith
Schlueter, - turnkey in a prison
Schlupwaechter - night watchman
Schm. - abbr. for Schmeid (smith)
Schmelzarbeiter, Schmelzer - (s)melter
Schmi(e)d(t) - smith
Schn. - abbr. for Schneider (tailor)
Schneider - tailor
Schnellweber - machine weaver
Schnider - tailor
Schni(t)tger, Schni(t)tker - woodworker; joiner
Schnitter - harvest hand
Schnittwarenhaendler - drygoods (cloth) merchant
Schnitzer, Schnitzker, Schnitzler - woodcarver
Schnuerer - lacemaker
Schnurmacher - lacemaker
Schnyder - tailor
Schoband - skinner's helper
Schoeffe - member
Schoeffen-, Schoeffenmeister - foreman of small claims court
Schoeffler, Schoeffler - bowlmaker
choenfaerber - dyer of colored goods
Schoepe - member of small claims court; lay juryman; councilman
Schoesser - tax collector
Scholz - village mayor; magistrate
Schomaker - shoemaker
Schoenbeck - pastry baker
Schoenfaerber - dyer of colored goods
Schoolapper - shoe cobbler
Schopenhauer - wooden scoop maker
Schopper - ship's carpenter
Schornsteinfeger - chimneysweep
Schosserheber - tax collector
Schoesser- tax collector
Schotte - peddler
Schottler - turner; key maker
Schottilier - turner; carpenter
Schrader - tailor; cutter
Schrannengast - grain merchant
Schreiber - clerk; business manager
Schreibmeist - master of writing
Schreiner - joiner; woodworker
Schriftfuehrer(in) - corresponding secretary
Schriftleiter(in) - editor of journal
Schriftsetzer - typesetter
Schrobber - wool weaver
Schrobelmacher - loom maker
Schroder, Schroeder - tailor
Schroepfer - blood-letter
Schroeer - tailor
Schroeter - tailor; carter; driver; cooper
Schryffeyne(r) - clerk
Schubart(h), Schubert(h), Schubring - shoemaker
Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert - shoemaker
Schuessler - bowl maker
Schuetze - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Schuhflicker - shoe cobbler
Schuhknecht - apprentice shoemaker
Schuhllapper - shoe cobbler
Schuhmacher - shoemaker
Schuhmann - shoemaker; seller of shoes
Schuhputzer - shoe-shiner
Schuhwerk - shoemaker
Schulapper - shoe cobbler
Schuldenbote - debt collector
Schuldiener - schoolteacher
Schuldner - debter
Schulgehilfe - teacher's assistant
Schullhalter - schoolteacher
Schuljunge, Schulknabe - schoolboy
Schullehrer(in) - schoolteacher
Schulleiter(in) - school principal
Schulmaedel - schoolgirl
Schulmeister - schoolmaster
Schulrat(h) - school board member
Schulsschwester - teaching nun
Schulte, Schultheiss - appointed village mayor; magistrate; head man of the village
governing body; originally tax collector for the ruler
Schul(t)z(e) - appointed village mayor; magistrate; head man of the village governing body;
originally tax collector for the ruler
Schumacher - shoemaker
Schumann - shoemaker; seller of shoes
Schuerken - toothache
Schuessler - bowlmaker
Schuster - shoemaker
Schutenmaker - boat builder
Schuetze - hunter; (mil.) rifleman
Schutzverwandter - protected non-citizen with rights of a citizen
Schuwarte - shoemaker
Schwaiger - shepherd
Schwanenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Swam Inn
Schwaer - illness
schwarzer Tod - black death; plague
Schwarzefaerber, - dyer of dark goods
Schwarzgiesser - iron smelter
Schwa(e)che - debility; weakness
Schweiger - cowherd; cheesemaker
Schweinehaendler - hog trader
Schwein(e)hirt(h) - pigherd
Schweisser - welder
Schwendimann - settler on recently burned woodland
Schwer(d)tfeger - armorer
Schwertbbauer - farmer on farm inherited through the male line
Schwoedler - white tanner
Seelbinder - ropemaker
Seelotse - sea pilot
Seelsorger - minister; chaplain; spiritual guide
Seemann - seaman
Segenschmi(e)d - saw smith
Segesser, Segisser - scythe maker
Segner - fisherman
Seidenneger - silk embroiderer
Seidenspuler - silk reeler
Seidenst(r)icker(in) - silk embroiderer
Seidenweber(in) - silk weaver
Seifensieder - soapboiler
Seigermacher - watchmaker
Seigerschmi(e)d - clockmaker
Seigersteller - caretaker of the village clock
Seigner - fisherman
Seiler - ropemaker; rope merchant
Seimtauer - tanner
Sekelmeister - master sackmaker; treasurer
Sekretaer(in) - secretary
Selcher - butcher; smoker of meat
Selzer - salt merchant
Sendbote - messenger
Senker - fisherman
Senkler - bracelet maker
Senn - (Alpine) herdsman; dairyman
Senner(in) - (Alpine) herdsman; dairyman/maid
Sensal - real estate agent
Sensenbrenner, -schmi(e)d - scythe maker
Sentrin - female cowherd
Sesterer - cooper
Settbur - farm administrator
Setzer - typesetter
Seuner - fisherman
Sicherheitspolizei - security police
Sichter - harvester
Sieber - sievemaker; sieve worker in a mine
Siebmacher - sievemaker
Siebmann - sieve worker in a mine
Sieche - sick person
Siedler - settler
Siegrist - church sexton
Siberarbeiter - silver worker
Silberbote - messenger
Silberschmi(e)d - silversmith
Simmermacher - sievemaker
Skribent - writer; scribbler
Smalweber - weaver of strips of linen
Smerde - slave
Smersnider - bacon merchant
Snitker - joiner
Snopel - vagabond
Soeldner - mercenary soldier; day laborer
Soldat - soldier
Soeldner - mercenary soldier; day laborer
Solepumper - helper at a salt well
Sommerkrankheit, -plague - summer complaint
Sonnenkraemer, -kramer - peddler
Sonnenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Sun Inn
Spangenmacher - brass worker; clasp maker
Spanner - freight hauler
Spediteur - freight forwarder
Speisewirt(h) - restauranteur
Spenelmacher, Spener - needle maker
Spengler - plumber; tinsmith
Spenhauer - carpenter
Spetter - market servant
Spettreiter - messenger
Spezereikraemer, -kramer - spice merchant
Spicker - cottager
Spikermann - cottager
Spiegelmacher - mirror maker
Spiegelwirt(h) - proprietor of the Mirror Inn
Spielmann - minstrel
Spiessbuerger, Spiesser - city citizen with no horse; philistine
Spillmacker - tile maker
Spindelbauer - farmer on a farm inherited through the female line
Spindelmacher, Spindler - wooden spindle maker
Spinner(in) - spinner
Spitalpfleger - male nurse; orderly
Spitalpflegerin - female practical nurse
Spitzenhaendler - lace dealer
Splettstoesser - shingle merchant
Splittgerber - tilemaker; shingle merchant
Spurmann - hunter
Stabhalter - administrator and judge
Stabherr - judge
Staebler - peddler; beggar
Stabschlaeger - cutter of wood for barrel staves
Stabsfeldwebel - (mil.) master sergeant
Stabkapitaen, -kapitain - (mil.) staff captain
Stabskeller - court official
Stabuel - beggar
Stabulier(er) - peddler
Stadler - keeper of the tax granary
Stadtbeamter - municipal official
Stadtbewohner - inhabitant of a city
Stadtbote - town messenger; beadle
Stadtdiener - town worker
Stadtknecht - town worker
Stadtrichter - municipal judge
Stadtschreiber - municipal clerk
Stadtvogt - town magistrate
Staebler - peddler; beggar
Staettenbesitzer - owner of a place
Staffhauer - maker of barrel staves
Staffirmaler - whitewasher
Stahlschmi(e)d - steelsmith
Stallbursche, -junge, -knecht - stable boy
Stallmagd - milkmaid
Stallmeister - equerry; master of the horse
Stalmenger - ironmonger
Staerkefabrikant - starch manufacturer
Staettenbesitzer - owner of a place
Statthalter - governor; vicar
Statzauner - pharmacist
Staudenmeier - shrubkeeper; gardener
Staufer - potter; cupmaker
Staupe, boese - festering sores and fever; child's convulsions
Stavener - farmer
Sterrtenmacher - pencilmaker
Steinbrecher - quarryman
Steinbrenner - maker of lime
Steinbroecker, -bruecker - bridge paver
Steiner - field border-stone watcher
Steingutarbeiter, -brenner - stoneware potter
Steingutwarenhaendler - stoneware dealer
Steinhacker - stonecutter
Steinhauer - stonecutter
Steinmetz - stonemason
Steinschneider - gem cutter; lapidary
Steinwirker - stoneworker
Steinworte - bricklayer
Stellmacher - wheelwright; wagonmaker
Stelzer - stilt-walker
Stengelbauer - poor farmer
Sterbenslaeufe - epidemic of plague
Sticker = embroiderer, Stickerin = embroideress
Stirnwirt(h) - proprietor of Star Inn
Sterzer - tramp
Steuerbeamte(r) - tax official
Steuerberater(in) - tax advisor
Steuerbote - tax messenger
Steuereinnehmer - tax collector
Steuerheber - tax assessor
Steuermann - ship or boat pilot; helmsman
Stieffeler - maker of vineyard stakes
Stiftenmacher - pencilmaker
Stiftungsmitglied - member of board of trustees of a foundation
Stille, in der - quietly (e.g. without the tolling of bells at a funeral/ wedding)
Stillfaut(h) - chairman of a secret court
Stillstaende- church elder
Stirnstosser - veil merchant
Stoecker - jailer
Stockjunge - rifle cleaning-rod boy
Stoellner - mine owner
Stoker - brandy distiller
Storger - market barker
Straehler - wool carder
Straehlmacher - combmaker; grapeshot maker
Strassen-, bauer - road builder
Strassen-, Strassenfeger - street sweeper
Strassen-, Strassenkehrer - street sweeper
Strassenkoetter - cottager living by the road
Stratener - peasant on a small farm
Stricker(in) - knitter
Strohdachdecker - fletcher; thatcher
Strohhutfabrikant - straw hat manufacturer
Strohmenger - straw merchant
Strohschneider - one who cuts straw for thatched roofs
Strumpflismer(in) - stocking knitter
Strumpfsticker(in) - stocking knitter
Strumpfweber(in) - stockingweaver
Stubenmeister - proprietor of an inn with a meeting room for guild or society members
Stueck-, Stueckwerker - piece worker
Stuenschenmacher - cooper of small buckets
Stuerzner - plumber
Stuhler, Stuhlmacher - joiner; chairmaker
Stuhlschreiber - court recorder
Stukkateur - stucco worker
Stuler - chairmaker
Stuenschenmacher - cooper of small buckets
Stuerzner - plumber
Stutenbaecker, -becker - pastry baker
Stuttknecht - stud horse groom
Stuurmann - boatman
Substitut - young pastor who takes over for and older pastor still officially in office
Suchmann - hunter
Sudler - cook of offal
Suesskuechler - pastry baker
Suwestecher - hog castrator
Sween - swineherd
 

Tabagist, Tabakist - proprietor of a tobacco shop
Tabaksarbeiter, Tabakpflanzer - tobacco worker/planter
Tobaksteuereinnehmer - tobacco tax collector
Tabourin - drummer
Tabulettkraemer, -kramer - peddler of pills
Taedinger - business agent; mediator
Taenzer(in) - dancer
Taeschner - pursemaker
Tafelitenkraemer, -kramer, Tafelit(t) - door-to-door salesman
Tagloehner(in), - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
Tagner(in) - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
Tallierer - peddler
Talmueller - miller in the valley
Tambour - (mil.) drummer
Taenzer(in) - dancer
Tapetenmaler - wallpaper painter
Tapazier(er) - wallpaper hanger
Taschner, Taeschnerd - leather bagmaker
Tater - gypsy
Taubenwirt(h) - proprietor of the Dove Inn
Tauer - tanner
Taufgesinnter - Anabaptist
Taun(n)er(in)- day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
Taverner - innkeeper
Techniker(in) - technician
Teefuehrer, -f�hrer - tar hauler
Teerschweler - tar manufacturer
Tegtmaier - farm rent collector
Tellrer - peddler
Tepper - potter
Teufer - Anabaptist
Thalmueller, Thalm�ller - miller in the valley
Thaun(n)er(in) - day-laborer, one who works small jobs paid by the day
Thierarzt - veterinarian
Thuchmacher - clothmaker
Tich(e)ler - tilemaker
Tierarzt - veterinarian
Tierausstopfer - taxidermist
Timmerman - carpenter
Tischer, Tischler, Tischmacher, Tischner - tablemaker; joiner
Toedde - peddler
Toepfer - potter
Torfstecher - peatcutter
Torhueter, -mann - gatekeeper
Torschreiber - gate toll collector
Torwaechter, -waechter - gatekeeper
Totenausleger - undertaker
Totenbeschauer - physician attesting death; medical examiner; coroner
To(d)tengraber, -graeber - gravedigger; cemetery caretaker
Totenmann - undertaker
Trabant - foot soldier
Traeger - pallbearer
Traexl - wood turner
Traiteur, Trakteur - master cook
Traubenweber - cloth weave
Trautgesell(e) - trusted journeyman
Trautherr - trusted master
Trautmann - trusted man
Traexl, Traxler - wood turner
Trechsler - wood turner
Trimmer - freight hauler
Trissler - treasurer
Troedler - peddler
Trommler - drummer
Trompeter - trumpeter
Troner - peddler
Tropfhaeusler - cottager; tenant with a small house
Trossknecht - baggage servant; wagoner
Truchsess - food procurer of a ruler or noble
Truhenmacher - trunkmaker
Trumpter - trumpeter
Trunkenbold - drunkard
Tschismenmacher - bootmaker of women's long boots
Tschudi, Tschudy - judge
Tuchhaendler - cloth merchant; draper
Tuchmacher - cloth maker; clothier
Tuchscherer - cloth cutter
Tuchwalker - fuller
Tuchweber(in) - cloth weaver
Tueffelmacher - slipper maker
Tuencher - whitewasher
Tueoedde, Tueoette - peddler
Tuerhueter - guard
Tuermer - watchman in a tower; bellringer
Tuefelmacher - slippermaker
Tuencher - whitewasher
T�uedde, Tuette - peddler
Turmvader, -vater - jailer
Tuunker - gardener
 

Uebersetzer(in) - translator
Uhrmacher - clockmaker; watchmaker
Ulan - (mil.) lancer
Ulenbecker - potter
Ulner - potter
Umsiedler - resettler; refugee
Unglueck - bad luck; epilepsy
Unterfeldwebel - sergeant
Unterhaendler- negotiator; agent
Unterkaeufer - broker
Untermieter(in) - subtenant; roomer; lodger
Untermueller - miller on the lower part of a stream
Unternaehmer - entrpreneur
Unteroffizier - (mil.) non-commisioned officer; petty officer; sergeant
Unterschultheiss- deputy mayor; vice-mayor
Untertan - subject; serf
Untervogt - assistant bailiff; deputy sheriff
Unvermoegende(r)- without property; pauper
UO - abbr. for Unteroffizier (non-commissioned officer)
Urheber(in) - author

Vaagd - bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler; administrator
Vastbecker - pastry baker
Verbrecher(in) - criminal
Vere - ferryman
Verfasser(in) - author
Verheiler - animal castrator
Verkaeufer(in)- sales clerk
Verleiher, Verleyher - investor
Verler - hog merchant
Vermieter(in) - renter; landlord/lady
Vermittler - marriage broker; matchmaker
Verschiedene - deceased person
Versorgungsempfaenger - pensioner, welfare recipient
Versteigerer - auctioneer
Verwalter - administrator
Verwandte - relative
Verweser - administrator; vicar
Verzimmerer - timberer in a mine
Veterinaer (arzt), Veterinaerarzt) - veterinarian
Vetinkmaker - wagonmaker
Viehhaendler, - cattle dealer
Viehhirt(e) - cowherd
Viehknecht - cattle herdsman
Viertelbauer - farmer of a 1/4 sized farm
Visitator - church census taker
Viztum - deputy of the ruler
Vizebuergermeister - deputy mayor
Vocker - wholesaler
Voerradesmann -guardian
Vogler - bird catcher; fowler
Vogt - bailiff; sheriff; constable; representative of the ruler
Volksheer - militia
Vollbauer, -erbe, -maier, spaenner- farmer on a full-sized farm
Vribunde - free farmer
Vucker - wholesaler
 

Waagemeister - weighmaster
Wachsspinner - wax-spinner
Waechter, Wachtgaenger - watchman; security guard
Wachtmeister - police patrolman; cavalry sergeant
Wachtsoldat - (mil) guard
Waechter - watchman; security guard
Waegner - wagonbuilder; cartwright
Waemstler - offal dealer
Waerter(in) - caretaker
Waescher(in) - launderer
Waffenfabrikant - armorer
Waffenschmi(e)d - shieldmaker; armorer
Wagenknecht - wagonhand
Wagenmeister - master wagon builder; master cartwright; (mil.) wagonmaster
Wagenpfleger - auto mechanic
Waggonmacher - car maker
Wagler, Wagener, Waegner - wagonbuilder; cartwright
Wagnermeister - master wagon builder; master cartwright
Wahrsfrau - nurse; caretaker
Wahrsmann - caretaker
Waidner - dyer
Waise(r) - orphan
Waisenpfleger(in) - guardian; caretaker of orphans
Waldbewohner - forest inhabitant
Waldgrebe - overseer of wood in a forest
Waldhaeuer- woodcutter
Waldhornist - hunting horn player
Waldhueter - forest guard
Waldschlaeger - woodcutter
Waldschuetze- forest guard
Walker - person who softens cloth; fuller
Waemstler - offal dealer
Wanderbursch(e), Wanderer - journeyman; traveler
Wandersmann - journeyman
Wandmacher - cloth weaver
Wandschneider - clothmaker
Wannenkraemer, -kramer - peddler
Wantsnider - clothmaker
Wardein - mint inspector
Waerter(in) - caretaker
Wartfrau - midwife
Waschmagd - washerwoman
Waescher(in) - launderer
Wasenmeister - skinner; renderer
Wassermueller - water-mill operator
Wasserzieher - water carrier to the public baths
Watmanger - cloth merchant
Wattmann - cloth wholesaler
Waydjaeger - hunter
Weber - weaver
Wechsler - money-changer; money lender
Wegewarter - road watchman
Wegmacher - road repairman
Wegmeister - road supervisor
Wehener - wagonbuilder; cartwright
Wehenmutter, Wehfrau - midwife
Wehmutter - midwife
Wehrmann - soldier
Wehrmeister - forester
Weibel - sergeant; court usher
Weid(e)mann - hunter
Weinbauer, -berger - vinedresser
Weinbleicher - wine bleacher (adulterator)
Weiner, Weinert - wagonbuilder; cartwright
Weinfuehrer- proprietor of a wine inn
Weingaertner- vinedresser
Weingeber - innkeeper
Weinhaendler - wine merchant
Weinherr- wine wholesaler
Weinreber - vine dresser
Weinschen(c)k(er) - proprietor of a wine tavern; wine waiter
Weinsticher - wine tester
Weinvisierer - wine inspector
Weinzapf - proprietor of a wine tavern
Weinzi(e)rl - vine dresser
Weisemutter - midwife
Weissbinder - copper; whitewasher
Weissdreher - ceramic worker
Weissgerber - tanner of fine leather
Weldeme(i)ster - policeman
Wendkraemer, -kramer - cloth merchant
Wenster - butcher
Werghaendler - flax dealer
Werkfuehrer, Werkmeister - factory foreman; Administrator
Wetschenmacher - bagmaker
Wetteherr - administrator of a guild
Wetzer - grinder; polisher
Weyner - wagonmaker; coach builder
Wildbrethaendler - venison dealer
Wilddieb, Wilderer - game poacher
Wildenhirt(e) - horse groom
Wildfoerster - forest ranger
Wildhirt - horse herder
Wildheger - gamekeeper
Wildheuer - grass cutter
Wildner - game hunter
Wildwerker - furrier
Windmueller - windmill operator
Wingertsmann - vintner
Winkler - merchant
Winzer - vine dresser
Wirker - worker; laborer
Wirt(h)(in) - innkeeper; landlord/lady
Wirtschaefterin, -schafterin, - housekeeper
Wissler - painter
Witmenger - wood merchant
Wittgrefe - overseer of wood in a forest
Wittib - widow
Wittiber, Wittler, Wittling, Wittmann - widower
Wit(t)we(r) - widow(er)
Wobber - wool weaver
Wochenpflegerin - obstetric nurse
Wohlhueter - foremen of woodcutters
Wollbereiter - wool preparer
Wolldeckenmacher - wool blanket maker
Wollenweber - woolweaver
Wollhaendler - wool dealer
Wollner - wool carder
Wollschlaeger - wool cleaner
Wollspinner - wool spinner
Wooler - wool carder
Wucherer - money-lender; usurer
Wuellenweber - wool weaver
Wuellner - maker of woolen clothes
Wuergengel - plague epidemic
Wuerth - innkeeper
Wuellenweber - woolweaver
Wuellner - maker of woolen clothes
Wundarzt - surgeon
Wurmfieber - diarrhea; typhoid fever
Wurster, Wurstmacher - sausage-maker
Wuert(h) - innkeeper
Wurzkreamer, -kramer, -kraemer, Wurzler, Wurzmann, Wurzmenger - herb merchant
Wyrt - innkeeper
 

Yngwuenner - tax collector

Zacher, Zacherweber - weaver
Zahlmeister - paymaster
Zahnaerzt(in) - dentist
Zahnbrecher - dentist, male
Zainer - basket weaver
Zajemacher - wool weaver
Zapfenwirt(h) - proprietor of a beer tavern
Zauberer - sorcerer
Zauer - clothmaker
Zechner - groom
Zeichnenlehrer(in) - drawing teacher
Zeichemmeister - weights and measures official
Zeichner(in) - graphic artist; drafter
Zeidelmann, Zeidler - beekeeper
Zeiner - basket weaver
Zeitungshaendler - newspaper dealer
Zeitungsfrau, -junge - newspaper carrier
Zeitungsverleger - newspaper publisher
Zeller - hermit monk; farmer of a large farm
Zeltknecht - tent-hand
Zementi(e)rer - cement worker
Zengener - tongsmith
Zensor - church censor
Zerenner - iron founder; smelter; blacksmith
Zeukraemer, -kramer, -kr�mer - cloth merchant
Zeugmacher - clothmaker
Zeugschmi(e)d - toolsmith
Zeugwahrter - cloth inspector
Ziechner - linemaker
Ziegelagent - brick dealer
Ziegelarbeiter, -brenner - brickmaker; tilemaker
Ziegeldecker - roofer
Ziegeleibesitzer - owner of a brickyard
Zieg(e)ler - brickmaker
Ziegenmenger - goat trader
Ziegerer - cheesemaker
Zielke - cabbage farmer
Zigeuner(in) - gypsy
Zimberman(n), Zimmermann - carpenter
Zimmerer - carpenter
Zimmergesell(e) - apprentice carpenter
Zimmerhauer - lumberjack
Zimmerknecht - apprentice carpenter
Zimmerling - carpenter
Zimmermaedchen - domestic servant, female
Zimmermaler - interior painter
Zimmermeister - master carpenter
Zinkenist - bugler
Zinsbauer - farmer who pays tithes
Zinsherr - lessor; landlord
Zinswucherer - userer
Zirkelschmi(e)d - compass-maker
Zitzweber - cotton weaver
ZM - abbr. for Zimmermann (carpenter)
Zmurde - Slavic servant
Zoeller - customs official
Zoellner - toll collector
Zoewerer - weaver
Zofe - chambermaid
Zollbeamte - customs official
Zolleinnehmer(in) - toll collector; collector of customs duty
Zoeller - customs official , toll collector
Zollfahnder - customs inspector
Zollinspektor - customs inspector
Zollmeister - customs officer
Zommacher - beltmaker
Zoewere - weaver
Zuechner - linenweaver
Zuechter - breeder
Zuechtiger - hangman
Zuckerbaecker - pastry baker
Zuckerimporteur - sugar importer
Zuckersieder - sugar maker
Zuechner - linenweaver
Zuechter - breeder
Zeuchtiger - hangman
Zugeherin, Zugehfrau - cleaning woman
Zueglin - trainee
Zunftbuerger citizen and guild member
Zunftmeister - chief warden of a guild; master of a guild
Zunftpfleger - warden of a guild
Zwillinge - twins
Zwirner, Zwirnmacher - threadmaker
Zwischendeckspassagier - steerage passenger

contributed by Ingeborg Brigitte Gastel Lloyd
 

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